Hare Krishna !!
The second chapter of Bhagavadwani Gita, Sankhyayoga, eamphasizes on using one’s intellect. In this chapter, to enable us to overcome our delusion God begins His preachings from the eleventh verse through Arjuna. From 11th to 30th verse Krishna preaches us through the intellect of body-soul that the soul exists eternally, it is everlasting, but the body is always changing and is subject to destruction.
Stressing on the duty, from verses 31 to 38 God tells Arjuna that to fight the battle of righteousness is your duty as a Kshatriya, but perform this duty by maintaining equanimity in happiness and sorrow, gain and loss, victory and defeat (2.38).
Equanimity has been vividly glorified in Gita (2.39, 2.40). Even-mindedness is form of God. The firm determination of attaining Supreme Divinity is very important for the attainment of that even-mindedness (2.41), Attraction for material pleasures and accumulation is the main obstacle in not making this firm determination.
Inspiring us to perform proper deeds God says that man has been given freedom to perform new deeds using his intellect, that is the specialty of human body. But those deeds have to be done, by renouncing attachment and desires.
The renunciation of attachment and desires means to do deeds only for the benefit of others. There should be no desire of getting anything in return. If the purpose of achieving God becomes fixed, then the driving force in performing those duties would not be the happiness of self but would be serving others.
Giving the definition of yoga (union with God), God says that equanimity is yoga (2.48), which means that equanimity is very very important. Actions can give liberation only when there is no attachment to those karmas and their fruits. In fact, doing deeds while keeping even-mindedness is the only way to perform actions efficiently (2.50)
In karma yoga (the method of performing actions properly), importance is not of actions but of yoga. The stability of the intellect is more important than the stability of the mind, because the control of mind and senses is possible only when the intellect is determinate. Arjun enquiring about fixed intelligence asks what are the characteristics of a man with a stable intellect and how does he behave. (2.54)
From verse 55 to 72 of this chapter, Krishna has answered these questions. He says that the renunciation of all desires is necessary for a stable intellect (2.55). As long as man desires enjoyment, accumulation, name, fame, comfort , his intellect cannot be stable.
Further, Krishna talking about the person with fixed intellect says, “whose senses are completely under control, his intellect is stable. Firm determination of attaining God is necessary for senses’ restraint. If contemplation is not of God, then one would be thinking of material objects only. On merely thinking of material objects how the man meets with his downfall- Krishna has given it’s sequence in the shlokas 2.62, 2.63.
On the contrary, Krishna says, if the striver is devoid of attachment and envy and then even consumes the material objects through his senses, he achieves the placidity of mind. (2.64, 2.65) Whether it is happiness of mind relating to God or the craving to attain God, both would lead to attainment of God.
Even if one of the senses is not under control, then that sense alone, getting attached to its object, would compel mind to follow it and cause man’s downfall. (2.67). This means that it is very necessary to control all the senses.
God concludes by saying, that the renunciation of desires, control of senses and the firm goal of attaining God are the reasons for attaining God. (2.71)
Hare Krishna !!